By Mawlānā Mahbūb ʾAhmad Qamruz Zamān Nadwī ʾIlāhābādī
Translated by Mawlānā Sulaymān al-Kindī
He was the third son of Hazrat Mujaddid ʾAlfi Thānī . He was born on Monday, the 11th Shawwāl 1007 Hijrī. Hazrat Mujaddid ʾAlfi Thānī said, “The birth of Muḥammad Maʿṣūm heralded much good fortune and blessings. In few months after his birth, I presented myself in attendance to Hazrat Khwājah Bāqī Billāh and rendered bayʿah to him. After being honoured with this bayʿah, I achieved whatever spiritual treasures that then followed.”
He studied some of the syllabus books from his elder brother, Hazrat Khwājah Muḥammad Ṣādiq , but studied most of the books under his illustrious father and Shaykh Muḥammad Ṭāhir Lāhorī . The author of Zubdatul Maqāmāt, Khwājah Muḥammad Hāshim Kishmī , wrote:
I personally heard Hazrat Mujaddid saying, “Muḥammad Maʿṣūm absorbs my Nisbah daily, just as the author of Sharḥul Wiqāyah memorised al-Wiqāyah from his paternal-grandfather.”
Hazrat Mujaddid Ṣāḥib also addressed his son thus, “My son! Complete your studies as quick as possible, because great work is to be taken from you.”
He complete his studies in the narrational sciences and intellectual sciences at the age of sixteen. He had memorised the Qurʾān in the short span of three months. He traversed the stages of Sulūk under the supervision of his father and attained Khilāfah. Upon the death of his father in 1034 Hijrī, he succeeded him to his post of guiding the seekers in the path. Both Arabs and non-Arabs benefited from his spiritual perfections.
He travelled to the Ḥaramayn where he performed the Ḥajj and was blessed to visit Rasūlullāh . Upon returning to India, he went to Sirhind where he spent his noble life in teaching and benefiting mankind spiritually. He not only guided people, but learning and teaching was a most beloved occupation. He used to teach Tafsīr Bayḍāwī, Mishkāt Sharīf, Hidāyah, ʿAḍudī and Talwīḥ to his students.
Shaykh Murād bin ʿAbdullāh al-Qazānī wrote:
Khwājah Maʿṣūm was a sign from amongst Allāh’s signs. He filled the world with light, just as his august father had done. Through the blessings of his lofty spiritual focus, he dispelled the darkness of ignorance and innovation. The effects of his pious company transported thousands of people to the high stage of spirituality. It is said that he had 900,000 followers and 7,000 Khulafāʾ. Three Moghul Emperors – Jahāngīr, Shāh Jahān and ʿĀlamgīr – pledged bayʿah to him, one after the other. Amongst them, ʿĀlamgīr was especially his most sincere murīd, and had confidence in his brothers as well. Many other high ranking figures amongst the ruling class also pledged to him. His circle of bayʿah included the senior scholars of the time. The famous author in Logic, ʾUstāẓ Mīr Zāhid, was his murīd. The famous Persian poet, Nāṣir ʿAlī Sirhindī, was also his murīd. He wrote poems about his Shaykh, such as:
The lamp of the weekly gathering of Khwājah Maʿṣūm;
casts a light from India to Rūm (Constantinople).
Besides the above, many famous and accomplished personages drew their fayḍ from Khānqah Maʿṣūmīyah.
His letters comprise three volumes, which have been published. These letters contain strange secrets, amazing points and wonderful knowledge. Every line manifests an outlook of, “ordering the good and forbidding evil.” Many letters are explanations and clarifications of the mystic knowledge of Hazrat Mujaddid ʾAlfi Thānī .
The spiritual lineage of India’s famous expert in Sharīʿah and Ṭarīqah, Hazrat Mirzā Mazhhar Jān-e-Jānān joins to Hazrat Khwājah Muḥammad Maʿṣūm with two intermediaries. This martyr spread the fayḍ of the Mujaddidī nisbah to hundreds of thousands of people. Who can estimate what was the total gardening to the rose-garden of Islām by the other Khulafāʾ of Hazrat Khwājah Muḥammad Maʿṣūm and the Khulafāʾ of his Khulafāʾ?
Hazrat Khwājah Muḥammad Maʿṣūm had six sons. All were accomplished recipients of his fayḍ. He also had six daughters. The sons were:
1. Shaykh Muḥammad Ṣibghatullāh
2. Shaykh Muḥammad Naqshband Ḥujjatullāh
3. Shaykh Muḥammad ʿUbaydullāh
4. Shaykh Muḥammad ʾAshraf
5. Shaykh Sayfud Dīn
6. Shaykh Muḥammad Ṣiddīq
He died whilst saying, “As-salāmu ʿalaykum,” on the 9th Rabīʿul ʾAwwal 1079 Hijrī. His journey from the temporary abode to the permanent abode occurred during the reign of ʿĀlamgīr . His tomb is located at Purānwār, Sirhind. May Allāh fill his resting place with light.
Biographies of the Naqshbandī Mujaddidī Mashāʾikh, p. 109 – 111