Shaykh ‛Abd al-Ḥaqq Muḥaddith Dihlawī

By Mawlānā Muḥammad Qamruz ZamānʾIlāhābādī
Translated by Mawlānā Mahomed Mahomedy

Shaykh Muhaddith rahimahullāh was born in Muharram 958 A.H./1551. His father’s name was Hadrat Maulānā Sayf ad-Dīn.

Early Education
The father of Shaykh Muhaddith rahimahullāh played a major role in his early education, training and tutoring. The father focused his attention on his son’s education when he was still a child. Shaykh Muhaddith rahimahullāh himself says:

I was trained and tutored in his affectionate lap by day and night.

He was only three years old and his father showed full zeal and enthusiasm in occupying himself in his son’s training. The father was anxious to convey to his son the academic and spiritual conditions which he had acquired over many years’ of striving. He was keen to apprise his son on the issue of Wahdatul Wujūd. When his son did not understand any point, the father would console him by saying:

Allāh willing the veil of the reality will gradually be raised before you and you will see the beauty of conviction.

At the same time, he used to say to him:

However, it is essential for you to think in this way all the time and to strive as much as you can. (Akhbār al-Akhyār)

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Imam Muhammad bin Qasim al-Thaqafi

MUHAMMAD BIN QASIM is undoubtedly one of the noblest sons of Islam. The most remarkable thing about him is that he combines the innocence of youth with the highest level of achievement.

MUHAMMAD BIN QASIM is undoubtedly one of the noblest sons of Islam. The most remarkable thing about him is that he combines the innocence of youth with the highest level of achievement. He was hardly seventeen when he led an army into Sind and conquered the whole of Sind and gave it a just and good government. These great achievements were attained in a strange, far off land, with the help of a few thousand countrymen. History has very few examples to put beside this one.

Muhammad bin Qasim strongly felt for the downtrodden masses who were suffering in the hands of rulers and gave them the basic human rights. All citizens were given equal rights. The Arab rule brought a new hope and new horizons for the down-trodden. The blessings of Arab rule were meant for Muslims and non-Muslims alike. The Hindus were amazed at the treatment they received. Their temples remained intact, and the government even repaired temples. Three per cent of the income from land revenue was set aside for the upkeep of the temples. The priests continued to enjoy the rights they had enjoyed before.

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Imam Abu ‘l-Faraj Ibn ‘l-Jawzi

By ‘Allamah Sayyid Abu ‘l-Hasan ‘Ali al-Nadwi

Ibn al-Jawzi presents another striking example of a preacher, reformer and renovator of the faith. He was the most reputed and profound scholar of his time and a prolific writer of voluminous books on exegesis of the Qur’an, Traditions, history and literary criticism.

Early Life

Born in 508 AH at Baghdad, Ibn al-Jawzi was 38 years younger than Abdul Qadir. His father died when he was still young but his mother sent him to study under a reputed traditionist of the day, Ibn Nasir. He committed the Qur’an to memory and learnt its recitation, studied the Traditions and calligraphy. Describing his childhood days to his son, Ibn al-Jawzi says:

“I quite recollect that I was admitted to the primary school at the age of six. Boys much more elder than me were inmates. I do not recollect if I had ever spent my time in playing or laughing with other boys. Instead of witnessing the performance of the jugglers who frequently held their shows in the field in front of the mosque where I studied, I used to attend the lectures on Traditions. Whatever Traditions or biographical accounts of the Prophet were related in the Iectures, those were memorised by me and then I also used to take them down on reaching home. Other boys spent their time in playing along the banks of the river but I invariably used to sit down with a book in my hand in a corner and read it from cover to cover.

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Shaykh Sayyid ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani

By ‘Allamah Sayyid Abu ‘l-Hasan ‘Ali al-Nadwi

Abdul Qadir was born in Gilan in 470 A. H. He was an Arab by descent, being the tenth descendent of Hasan ibn Ali, but belonged to Iran by migration of his ancestors. He came to Baghdad in 488 A. H. at the age of l8 years. It was perhaps not merely fortuitous that he arrived at Baghdad to acquire education almost at the same time when another reputed teacher, al-Ghazali, was leaving the city in search of truth. Although inclined to penance and cultivation of religious observances from an early age, he addressed himself whole-heartedly to acquire education under the most reputed teachers of the time such as Abul Wafa Ibn Aqeel, Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Baqilllani and Abu Zakariya Tebrezi. Thereafter, he turned to mysticism and was guided in its tenets and practices by Sheikh Abul Khair Hammid ibn Muslim al-Dabbass and Qadi Abu Sa’eed Makhrami, and was allowed by the latter to initiate others in the mystic order of his mentor.

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‘Umar bin ‘Abd al-Aziz

By ‘Allamah Abu ‘l-Hasan ‘Ali Nadwi

Reformist Endeavors of the FirstCentury:

Soon after the Khilafate Rashida (the rightlyguided
caliphate) came to an end and the
Ummayyad Empire, which was more Arab than
Islamic, consolidated itself, the need over
reformation and renovation in Islam was felt
keenly. Customs, traditions and remembrances
of the pagan past, which had been discredited
and repressed under the impact of the Prophet’s
teachings and the vigilant eye of the Khilafate-
Rashida, began to re-assert themselves among
the new Arab converts to Islam. The then
Government was not organized according to the
dictates of the Qur’an and the Sunnah: its
guiding lights were Arab diplomacy, expediency
and interest of the State. Arab racialism, tribal
pride, partisan spirit and nepotism, regarded as
unpardonable sins during the days of the
Khilafat-e-Rashida, became the hallmarks of the
new aristocracy. The unruly spirit of the Arabs,
which had sought asylum in the far off deserts,
returned again to reassert itself; extravagance,
pretentiousness and boastfulness took the place
of virtuous deeds and moral excellence. Baitul-
Mal (the State Exchequer) became personal
property of the Caliphs who wasted public
money on professional poets, eulogists, jugglers
and buffoons. The courtiers of the rulers began
to be accorded a preferential treatment, which
gave them heart to break the law of the land.
Music and singing grew almost to a craze.
The extravagant rulers, surrounded by dissolute
parasites who flocked to the capital, demoralized Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz
the society and produced an aristocracy
resembling the pagan Arab wastrels of the age
of Ignorance in morals and behavior. It
appeared as if the pre-Islamic Ignorance had
retuned with a vendetta to settle its accounts of
the past forty years with Islam.

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Imam Abu ‘l-Hasan al-Ashari

By ‘Allamah Abu ‘l-Hasan ‘Ali Nadwi

The Crisis of ‘Itizal’:
Ascendancy of Mutazilites: The Mutazilites
suffered a severe setback after the death of
Mutasim and Wathiq, both of whom were ardent
supporters of their school. Mutawakkil, the tenth
Abbasid Caliph, succeeded his brother Wathiq
in 232 A.H. He was against the Mutazilites and
keen for the restoration of the true faith. He
declared as heretic the allegedly freethinking
Mutazilites, expelled them from public offices
and interdicted discussions on dogmatic
questions by them. Yet, ‘Itizal had taken roots
in the circles of the learned and the philosophers,
all over the Islamic world. Although the doctrine
in regard to the creation of the Qur’an had died
out, the Mutazilite thought still exercised
considerable influence. The Mutazilites
continued to be vigorous owing to the eminent
exponents of ‘Itizal’ who were well-versed in
literature, dialectics, jurisprudence and other
sciences, and held high offices under the State.
They gained ascendancy by the middle of the
third century A.H. when it was commonly held
that they possessed rationalistic tendencies, were
progressive thinkers and seekers after the Truth.
This became the prevailing taste which was
taken after by the young men, students and
others who wanted to cut a figure. The Hanbalite
School could not produce another savant of
Ahmad Ibn Hanbal’s erudition while the
traditionists and the teachers of orthodox school
came to regard secular sciences as undesirable
intruders into the domain of religion. The
ignorance of orthodox theologians in dialectics
and other secular sciences began to be regarded
as their weakness with the result that the ‘Itizal’
acquired predominance such as it had never
gained before or after that period. It is true that
all those who had a profound knowledge of
religious sciences had generally accepted the
tenets of the traditionists and jurisprudents but
the misinformed commonalty was mostly
swayed by the wit and art of discursive reasoning
exhibited by the Mutazilites. Many among the
theologians too suffered from inferiority complex
which served to attract minds not content with
the formalism of the orthodox school towards
the Mutazilite thought. This, indeed, posed a great
danger for the Shariah and the path trodden by
the mentors of the old. The rationalists, holding
the view that human reason was competent to
go searching after the Ultimate Reality,
explained away those passages of the Qur’an
which they did not find helpful to their modes of
reason. These explanations were undermining
the religion and fundamental tenets of the Faith.
An alleged rationalism lacking in erudition and
wisdom was thus gaining ground among the
Muslims which could not be refuted successfully
by the unflinching faith and ardent zeal of the
Hanbalites and traditionists or by the moral and
spiritual excellence of the pious, nor yet by the
analogical deduction and elaborate canonical
laws and rules of the jurists.
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Tipu Sultan – The Tiger of Mysore

 

Sultan Fateh Ali Tipu (November 1750, Devanahalli – 4 May 1799, Srirangapattana),

Source  : http://www.faizaneislam.org

An article written by one of the descendants of the Tiger of Mysore.

Tipu Sahib Shaheed, King of Mysore, was a genius rather different in nature from his father, Haidar Ali Khan Sahib. Whereas, according to the British, Haidar’s attitude was frankly secular, and he cared not at all what a man’s religion might be, so long as he were a good soldier, Tipu was before everything, devout.

It has, however been claimed that Haidar was of the Sunni or Orthodox Islamic faith, in which case the difference between them may rather have been that where his religion was of the conventional order, Tipu was a mystic, with a mystic’s fervor.

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Mawlana ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Ahmad al-Jami

Query:

Please tell me more on what Abdul-Rahmaan Jami writes about the battle of Siffeen and about Ali (RA) is true in his Shawahid un Nubuwwah ‘I testify there is no God but Allah. I testify that Muhammad is the Prophet of Allah, and I testify that Ali is the Wasi of the Prophet Muhammad’. Is Abdul-Rahman Jami a reliable author or scholar of the Sunni?

Answer:

My response to the incident allegedly quoted by Mawlana Jami follows:

Mawlana ‘Abd ar-Rahman ibn Ahmad al-Jami was a great scholar and Sufi who died in 898 AH. He excelled in various fields, such as grammar, philosophy, logic, theology and jurisprudence, in which field he followed the Hanafi school. In addition he was a refined poet of the Persian language.

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Sheikh ul-Islam Izz Ud-din Ibn Abdul Salam

Saviours of Islamic Spirit Vol I
By Maulana Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi

SHEIKH UL-ISLAM IZZ UD-DIN IBN ABDUL SALAM

The heroic endeavours of Salah ud-din who set himself to work in the most earnest fashion with the re-introduction of orthodox doctrines of Islam in place of the Shia’ite creed, the chain of educational institutions started for the purpose all over ahis wide realm and, above all, the personal example set by him and some of the Muslim rulers in following the religious precepts and code of moral conduct redirected the energies of the people towards learning and teaching of the religious sciences. As a result thereof, we find several erudite scholars during the seventh century, who had devoted themselves, body and soul, to the dissemination of Islamic teachings among their compatriots. The most outstanding personage among these savants was Sheikh ul-Islam clzz ud-din ibn Abdul Salam (d. 660 A. H.)- Reputed for profound learning, piety and courage, he never compromised with the corrupting influences of his time and the degenerate ways of the then rulers.

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